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A competency is a defined cluster of related capabilities (skills and knowledge) with methods and criteria to determine the degree to which a person demonstrates mastery in them. Competencies often correspond to roles, such as student, plumber, or writer, and mastery may be benchmarked toward the ultimate demonstration of proficiency in that role (p. 6).

Competencies in education can be categorized as personal, academic, or career/occupational (p. 7).

Dr. Sam Redding

Handbook on Personalized Learning

CBE, an educational approach that focuses on the mastery of
competencies—rather than seat time—as the measure of student
learning, is increasingly being recognized as a key strategy for
ensuring that all students can reach the higher bar of college and
career readiness (Martinez & Poon, 2015; Worthen & Patrick,
2015). In a competency-based approach, students earn credit by
demonstrating that they have met specific learning targets—that is,
competencies (p. 2).

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